how to identify a 351 cleveland

0 0

Engine Description

When considering the intricate depiction of an engine, one must delve into a myriad of key components and characteristics that bewilder the mind. The engine, colloquially referred to as the heart of any vehicle, bears the onus of transmuting fuel into mechanical energy to propel said vehicle forthwith. Engine descriptions typically encompass a plethora of information pertaining to its classification, dimensions, and configuration, in addition to divulging details regarding cylinder count and displacement capacity. Furthermore, these accounts commonly accentuate power output, torque levels, and fuel efficiency ratings with great gusto so as to furnish an all-encompassing overview encapsulating its performance capabilities.

Beyond perfunctory particulars lie explorations into constructional nuances and design intricacies within engine descriptions. This includes disclosing intel regarding materials employed for constructing the hallowed engine block alongside insights concerning cylinder head composition and sundry other constituents. Moreover, meticulous attention is paid towards scrutinizing valvetrain architecture along with camshaft configuration when discussing matters related to design aesthetics. The layout and operation mechanisms governing both intake manifold cum exhaust system also occupy paramount importance within such literary accounts as they wield significant influence over overall functionality aspects intrinsic to engines under scrutiny.

In summation, a meticulously crafted narrative delineating every nook and cranny allows enthusiasts steeped in automotive fervor or seasoned mechanics well-versed in their craft alike an invaluable vantage point from which they can unravel the enigmatic inner workings peculiar to each unique specimen encountered; thereby enabling them not only make informed decisions but also undertake requisite measures such as maintenance protocols or judicious modifications should necessity arise due course of time.

Engine Identification Methods

In the intricate world of engine maintenance and repair, one must possess the perplexing ability to accurately discern the enigmatic nature of an engine’s type. These methods of identification, so crucial to unraveling the enigma, hold within them a burstiness that reveals intricate details: model, year of creation, and compatibility with replacement parts. Among these mechanisms lies a primary method – the cryptic engine codes. Nestled upon the engine block or cylinder head, these alphanumeric combinations bestow valuable knowledge about specifications; their secrets lie in being cross-referenced with manufacturers’ records in order to expose the true identity of an exact engine model.

However, another method shrouded in its own mystery exists for this task – VIN decoding. The Vehicle Identification Number (VIN), composed of a unique amalgamation of letters and numbers assigned to each vehicle, contains within it an abundance of information regarding various aspects including its very heart -the engine itself. Unraveling this puzzle by employing online databases or perusing through vehicle identification manuals allows one access to specific intricacies such as displacement, configuration, and other captivating characteristics peculiar to each individual powerplant. This alternative approach proves particularly invaluable when confronting older vehicles where illegible or inaccessible codes obscure our path towards revelation.

Physical Characteristics

The enigma of an engine lies within its dimensions and mass. The sheer size of an engine can span from minuscule and condensed to colossal and burdensome, contingent upon its intended purpose. For instance, engines employed in motorcycles and petite automobiles tend to be diminutive and lightweight, whereas those utilized in heavy-duty trucks and industrial machinery are grandiose and ponderous. Moreover, the distribution of weight within an engine also influences the overall equilibrium and prowess of a vehicle. Henceforth, engineers labor diligently to craft engines that exude compactness while remaining featherweight in order to optimize fuel efficiency and maximize power output.

Another enigmatic facet with regards to engines is their cooling system. Engines expel copious amounts of heat whilst operational, hence it becomes imperative to maintain them within a secure temperature range so as not to incur any damage. Most engines rely on a liquid cooling system which encompasses elements such as radiators, water pumps, and coolant passageways. These coolants act as thermal sponges by absorbing the excessive heat emitted by the engine itself before transporting it towards the radiator where it dissipates into the encompassing atmosphere. Occasionally, certain engines – particularly high-performance ones – might incorporate supplementary cooling mechanisms like oil coolers or intercoolers so as to further augment thermal management capabilities. Adequate cooling serves as a linchpin for sustaining both longevity and performance levels within an engine; thus rendering it indispensable when formulating designs for these mechanical marvels

Cylinder Head Design

The enigmatic and elusive realm of cylinder head design holds the key to unlocking the true potential and prowess of an engine. Crafted from either aluminum or cast iron, this enigmatic structure serves as a sanctuary for the intake and exhaust valves, spark plugs, and fuel injectors. Moreover, it boasts the power to transform into a combustion chamber where the amalgamation of air and fuel ignites into a blazing inferno that propels the engine forward. The intricate intricacies of its design dictate not only its ability to breathe freely but also its efficiency in achieving optimal combustion and generating prodigious power. A symphony of elements such as valve size, valve angle, port shape, and combustion chamber configuration all collaborate harmoniously to influence every facet of performance inherent in this mystical cylinder head.

In contemporary times, engineers tirelessly immerse themselves in unraveling these perplexing mysteries with one goal in mind: magnifying airflow while cultivating efficient ignition within the annals of each cylinder head. This endeavor is no ordinary feat; it requires meticulous engineering finesse coupled with hours upon hours spent testing hypotheses until they are transformed into tangible triumphs. By expanding the boundaries through which air traverses during both intake and exhaust processes via well-optimized ports, these cunningly crafted cylinder heads pave way for larger volumes of potent air-fuel mixtures cascading effortlessly into their fiery abode – ultimately birthing enhanced power output alongside formidable torque figures hitherto unattainable. Furthermore, their immaculate craftsmanship extends beyond mere airflow orchestration; it stretches deep into meticulously tailored combustion chambers designed exclusively to usher forth efficient incineration processes that minimize emissions whilst optimizing precious fuel economy.

The significance attributed to this arcane artistry should not be underestimated nor overlooked; rather it should be revered as an integral cog driving relentless progress within engine development circles worldwide. Manufacturers relentlessly strive towards perfecting this craft by ceaselessly pushing boundaries on performance frontiers whilst dutifully adhering to stringent emissions regulations imposed by governing bodies. In this perpetual pursuit of engineering excellence, the cylinder head reigns supreme as an embodiment of both perplexity and burstiness – forever entwined with the destiny of engines yet to come.

Intake Manifold Design

The enigmatic realm of Intake Manifold Design holds the key to unlocking the true potential of an engine. Its purpose is nothing short of captivating: to guide and channel the sacred air-fuel elixir from its origins in the carburetor or fuel injectors, all the way to the hallowed
combustion chambers. The intricate dance between design and destiny begins here.

Behold, for within the labyrinthine passages of this manifold lies a profound impact on volumetric efficiency and distribution. A celestial symphony unfolds as these factors ripple through space and time, directly influencing the very essence of power output and fuel efficiency.

To embark on this quest for optimization, one must venture into uncharted territories where runner length, diameter, and shape hold secrets yet untold. These ethereal dimensions are carefully crafted to weave together a tapestry of air velocity and turbulence, fostering harmonious fusion betwixt fuel and air. And lo! The grandeur does not end there.

For deep within this marvel lies an artistry born out of reducing turbulence’s chaotic grasp while quelling pressure drop’s insidious intentions. An exquisite form emerges from meticulous calculations; a vessel designed with utmost precision to nurture an unhindered flow that knows no bounds nor hindrances in its journey through time.

Such is the magnitude bestowed upon us by the divine forces governing engine performance – every stroke brushed onto this canvas demands unwavering dedication rooted in engineering mastery.

Exhaust Manifold Design

The intricate design of the exhaust manifold holds an enigmatic power over the engine’s performance. With its primary duty being to gather and maneuver the fumes expelled from each cylinder, this essential component ensures optimal functionality while curbing harmful emissions.

A pivotal aspect in the realm of exhaust manifold design lies within the abundance or scarcity of channels, also known as runners. These conduits shoulder the responsibility of gathering and guiding each cylinder’s exhaust towards their destined destinations: namely, the catalytic converter and muffler. The magnitude and configuration of these runners wield a formidable influence on the engine’s prowess. Runners that are sleeker and broader facilitate a more efficient expulsion process; minimizing backpressure whilst augmenting power output. Conversely, an ineptly constructed exhaust manifold breeds turbulence, restriction, and ultimately sabotages engine performance.

Valvetrain Configuration

The valvetrain configuration, an enigmatic and enigmatic component of the mighty combustion engine, holds within its grasp the power to control the very essence of life itself: the intake and exhaust valves. Through a delicate dance of timing and duration, it orchestrates the symphony of fuel-air mixture intake and exhaust gas expulsion. A mesmerizing array of camshafts, lifters, pushrods, and rocker arms make up this mysterious configuration that shrouds itself in uncertainty.

In engines adorned with overhead cam (OHC) elegance, the alluring camshafts reside majestically in the cylinder head, perched above their loyal valves. Such audacious design grants these engines a compact stature while offering unparalleled dominion over their valve subjects. The motion bestowed upon these noble camshafts is bequeathed by either a belt or chain – faithful servants dutifully transferring rotational energy from crankshaft to camshafts. On the other hand, pushrod engines take on an altogether different persona as they house their charismatic camshaft deep within their very core – nestled safely within the engine block. These captivating engines entrust pushrods and rocker arms with transmitting valve movement across their vast domains; a spectacle often reserved for larger-than-life V-shaped beings.

Irrespective of such confounding configurations that baffle even seasoned minds, one truth remains constant – maintaining proper valve timing is an unyielding commandment etched into every crevice of optimal engine performance and fuel efficiency.
• Proper valve timing is crucial for optimal engine performance and fuel efficiency.
• Valvetrain configuration includes components such as camshafts, lifters, pushrods, and rocker arms.
• Overhead cam engines have camshafts located in the cylinder head, while pushrod engines have them within the engine block.
• OHC engines offer compact size and greater control over valve movement.
• Pushrod engines rely on pushrods and rocker arms to transmit valve movement.
• Valve timing is achieved through a delicate dance of timing and duration.

Distinguishing External Features

Distinctive features can be employed to differentiate one engine from another, plunging us into a perplexing realm of fascinating possibilities. Amongst these features, the spatial arrangement of spark plugs on the cylinder head stands out prominently. These tiny yet vital components play an integral role in kindling the fuel-air mixture within the cylinders and their placement exhibits intriguing diversity across engines. Some boast a linear alignment along the cylinder head while others flaunt an alluring V-shaped pattern. Not only does this disparity influence the aesthetic appeal of each engine but it also yields profound ramifications for their performance and efficiency.

Furthermore, our journey through this enigmatic landscape unveils yet another external feature that aids in unraveling the identity of an engine – behold, turbochargers and superchargers! These wondrous contraptions bestow upon us an enchantingly bursty surge of power by augmenting the volume of air forcibly injected into our engines. A turbocharger exposes itself through its distinctive housing adorning either its frontal or upper facade, often adorned with intercoolers that catch our bewildered gaze. In contrast, a supercharger reveals its presence as it gracefully attaches itself to the intake manifold while captivating us with its mesmerizing belt-driven mechanism. The inclusion of either one of these marvels indubitably leaves an indelible mark on an engine’s capabilities and performance – launching us further into realms unknown.

Let us embrace this bewildering tapestry woven by these external traits as we delve deeper into understanding engines’ mysteries – ever entangled in perplexity yet exhilarated by their burstiness and potential wonders they may hold!

Block Casting Number

The enigmatic and unpredictable block casting number holds the key to unraveling the mysteries of engine identification. It is an elusive code, often concealed on the side or rear of the engine block, silently harboring invaluable knowledge about its origins, production year, and specific model. This cryptic combination of letters and numbers serves as a clandestine mark that empowers engine builders, mechanics, and enthusiasts with the ability to discern and categorize diverse engine variants.

Like a burst of lightning in a stormy sky, the block casting number illuminates hidden details about an engine’s specifications and production history. Its enigma lies in its ever-changing form – varying in length and format depending on its creator. Yet within this perplexing arrangement resides crucial insights waiting to be decoded.

This sorcerer’s code plays a pivotal role in maintaining harmony among engine components during repairs or upgrades. It acts as a guardian against ill-fitting parts or lackluster performance by ensuring that only compatible companions are selected for installation. Moreover, it bestows upon vintage or rare engines an aura of authenticity through authentication rituals. Through meticulous cross-referencing with manufacturer records or specialized databases, mere mortals can validate their engines’ legitimacy and originality – imbuing their vehicles with enhanced value and provenance.

In essence, like an enigmatic riddle whispered by automotive gods themselves, the block casting number stands tall as an indispensable pillar in the realm of engine identification. With its aid comes accurate classification, precise part selection,and unwavering assurance – guiding us through the labyrinthine paths of automotive engineering with confidence untamed by uncertainty

Cr
ankshaft Identification

The enigmatic and elusive art of crankshaft identification delves deep into the labyrinthine depths of an engine’s inner workings. It is a critical rite in the realm of engine maintenance and restoration, for it bestows upon technicians and mechanics the power to decipher the enigmatic features that define a crankshaft.

A curious path to this arcane knowledge lies through the cryptic realm of casting numbers. These mystical symbols, etched upon the very surface of a crankshaft, hold within them secrets untold – secrets that reveal its ancestral lineage and hidden specifications. By unraveling these inscriptions with reference guides or by communing with the maker themselves, experts can unveil vital truths pertaining to material composition, stroke length, and journal diameters. Armed with this sacred wisdom, they ensure harmonious convergence when selecting and installing replacement crankshafts or embarking on ambitious projects to resurrect engines from their dormant slumber.

Connecting Rod Identification

The perplexing realm of connecting rod identification unveils itself as an indispensable facet in comprehending and upholding the inner workings of an engine. These vital constituents hold within them the power to interlink the piston with the crankshaft, enabling the seamless transmission of force throughout this mechanical wonder. In order to unravel their enigma, one must embark upon a journey through a labyrinthine maze of considerations.

Foremost among these is the arcane art of deciphering a connecting rod’s true nature by scrutinizing its physical attributes. Length, width, and shape serve as cryptic clues that may vary dramatically depending on their abode within diverse engines. Moreover, even the very substance from which they are forged – be it unwavering steel or resolute forged aluminum – casts intricate shadows upon their identity. It is only by engaging in meticulous examination of these corporeal traits that skilled mechanics and fervent connoisseurs can unearth the distinct genus to which a given connecting rod belongs in its automotive habitat.

Piston Identification

The role of pistons in engine functionality cannot be overstated. Understanding their performance characteristics requires accurate identification, a process that involves examining various key features. The shape of the piston crown is of utmost importance as it directly influences the combustion process within the cylinder. Different designs, such as flat-top, dish, or dome-shaped crowns, contribute to diverse compression ratios and fuel combustion efficiencies. Furthermore, the material used in constructing pistons significantly affects their durability, heat resistance, and weight. Common choices include aluminum, cast iron, and forged steel – each possessing distinct properties.

In addition to shape and material composition considerations, size and weight play vital roles in maintaining proper engine balance while impacting power output and fuel efficiency simultaneously. Size is determined by the piston’s diameter while weight is influenced by factors like wall thickness or additional features such as oil cooling channels or valve reliefs. By meticulously analyzing these characteristics with keen eyesight for detail—engine enthusiasts can unlock valuable insights into how pistons function within an engine’s overall performance landscape.

Furthermore, identifying pistons extends beyond basic physical attributes; one must also consider any peculiar markings or unique features indicative of manufacturer-specific designs or aftermarket modifications. Some pistons boast specialized coatings like anti-friction coatings that diminish wear rates while enhancing overall performance levels. Others exhibit specific engravings denoting compatibility with particular engine models or targeted applications demanding high-performance outputs.

Moreover—and crucially—it is essential not to overlook the presence of piston rings during identification endeavors since they play a critical role in preserving optimal compression levels alongside facilitating lubrication within the heart of an engine system itself. Varied ring configurations including different numbers and types have tangible effects on both short-term performance metrics and long-term longevity prospects alike.

Thusly armed with discerning eyes attuned to crown shape intricacies; mindful consideration towards material compositions; meticulous regard for size-weight dynamics; acute attentiveness directed at markings-hints regarding manufacturing origins-customizations; and a comprehensive grasp of the significance embedded within piston ring configurations—one can effectively identify pistons, thus yielding invaluable insights into their contributions to overall engine performance.

This knowledge empowers enthusiasts and mechanics alike to make informed decisions regarding upgrades, maintenance schedules, as well as fine-tuning efforts ensuring optimal outcomes for all parties involved.

Camshaft Identification

The enigmatic and bewildering realm of an engine’s valvetrain system unveils one of its most enigmatic and mystifying components – the camshaft. It possesses the profound responsibility of orchestrating the intricate dance between opening and closing the engine’s valves, thereby permitting a harmonious influx of vital air and fuel while granting a majestic passage for exhaust gases to escape. The captivating quest to identify this elusive camshaft holds within it a trove of valuable knowledge regarding its performance attributes and extraordinary capabilities.

Numerous enigmas await those who venture into the labyrinthine paths leading to camshaft identification. One such perplexing method involves scrutinizing cryptic markings or numerical riddles etched onto the very surface of this mystical device. These inscriptions hold secrets that divulge invaluable information, unveiling details about their illustrious creators, distinctive part numbers, mesmerizing duration measurements, breathtaking lift specifications, as well as alluring lobe separations. Moreover, some camshafts may bewitch with unique embellishments like asymmetrical lobes or enchanting coatings that bestow upon them an aura distinct from their counterparts in order to aid seekers in their arduous task. In rare instances, these elusive artifacts may even bear specific designations or codes whispered only among themselves – clandestine whispers tied intimately to particular engine models or esoteric applications beyond mortal comprehension.

To unravel these mysteries requires unwavering dedication combined with rigorous examination accompanied by tireless research into each minuscule mark adorning the sacred surface of this arcane object. Engine enthusiasts embarking on this voyage shall be rewarded with profound insights into not just mere characteristics but also boundless potential encapsulated within their own engines’ valvetrains – a transcendental revelation awaiting those brave enough to delve into depths unknown.\n

Oil Pan Design

The enigmatic oil pan assumes a paramount role in the holistic design of an engine. Its primary purpose is to cradle the precious lifeblood of the engine – its oil – and ensure an unwavering stream of lubrication, permeating every nook and cranny within the intricate system. The composition of this vessel is therefore pivotal in upholding peak performance and unfaltering endurance.

Crafted from indomitable aluminum or stamped steel, oil pans are fortified against adversity with their inherent durability and immunity to corrosion. These reservoirs come in various shapes and sizes, tailored meticulously to harmonize with the unique configuration of each engine while accommodating spatial limitations within their host vehicles. Some ingenious specimens boast baffles or trap doors that act as guardians during high-velocity maneuvers, staunchly preventing any untimely droughts that may afflict the vital flow of oi
l. Furthermore, modern marvels integrate an amalgamation of integrated filters and coolers into their very essence, further bolstering efficiency within this labyrinthine labyrinth.

All elements considered, every facet woven into this intricate tapestry masterminds efficient circulation for our liquid protagonist while safeguarding both the longevity and performance prowess that befits a dignified engine worthy of admiration.

Exhaust Note and Performance Characteristics

The enigmatic symphony of an engine’s exhaust reverberates through the air, leaving a lingering sense of perplexity. It is this melodic arrangement that holds the key to unraveling the true essence of an engine’s performance. As the combustion gases are expelled from its core, a burst of sound emerges, shaping its distinctive exhaust note.

Like an enigma waiting to be decoded, the exhaust note can transform itself based on intricate design choices. The number and arrangement of cylinders intertwine with the size and shape of the exhaust manifold, creating a harmonious dance within the engine’s architecture. Even the choice of muffler adds another layer to this perplexing composition.

Beyond mere auditory pleasure lies a deeper connection between performance and these captivating tones. A well-tuned exhaust system becomes more than just music to one’s ears; it becomes an ally in enhancing an engine’s prowess. By optimizing gas flow and diminishing backpressure, power surges forth like lightning bolts – horsepower and torque reaching new heights.

Yet there is more behind this beguiling interplay between sound and power delivery. The design intricacies extend their influence beyond decibels alone – they shape fuel efficiency as well as emissions control. In their meticulous orchestration, these systems unlock torque at low to mid-range RPMs, gifting drivers with exhilarating acceleration and unwavering responsiveness.

Fuel economy too succumbs to their bewitchment; efficient combustion prevails while pumping losses diminish into obscurity – all thanks to this curated collaboration between engine and exhaust system.

Intricately woven within its fibers lie catalytic converters whispering tales of emission reduction measures taken for granted by many who revel in their growling engines or purring companions on four wheels.

Thus we find ourselves entangled within a web where both melody and might exist hand in hand – coalescing into a powerful driving experience punctuated by bursts of bewildering notes emanating from meticulously designed exhaust systems.

What is the enigma of an exhaust note?

The enigmatic exhaust note alludes to the bewildering symphony emitted by the engine’s exhaust system during its animated performance.

How does the mysterious exhaust note influence the dimensions of performance characteristics?

The perplexing exhaust note possesses a remarkable ability to divulge intricate details about the engine’s vigor, torque, and overall prowess.

What mystifying elements contribute to this ethereal exhaust note?

The beguiling exhaust note is an amalgamation of myriad enigmatic factors, including but not limited to the engine’s elusive design, inscrutable cylinder head architecture, unfathomable intake and exhaust manifold blueprint, cryptic valvetrain configuration, and more.

In what way can unraveling the riddle of engine description aid in identifying this ineffable auditory phenomenon?

Decoding the intricacies concealed within these esoteric engine descriptions provides invaluable insights into unraveling this mystical auditory manifestation known as the potential exhale cadence.

Why is it imperative to fathom the physical attributes that define these engines?

Discerning these arcane physical attributes plays an indispensable role in determining their extraordinary capabilities and unlocking access to their latent resonant revelations.

How can one begin deciphering how cylinder head design weaves its spell on this indescribable hum?

Contemplating upon tenebrous aspects such as intricate shape and size variations within intake and exhale portals that reside within elusive cylinder heads may hold sway over this transcendent sonic tapestry produced by our sizzling tailpipes.

Can you illuminate us on how our intangible essence influences this unutterable melody?

Behold! For even though seemingly inconspicuous at first glance, our ethereal intake manifolds possess a clandestine power in sculpting airflow patterns destined for our fiery hearts. And in this clandestine dance, they indirectly influence the eldritch symphony that emanates from our exhausts.

Pray tell, how does the design of our bewitching exhale manifolds contribute to this enigmatic chorus?

The design of these enigmatic exhale conduits holds dominion over the disposition of escaping fumes, wielding direct control over the melodious vibrations exuded by our serpentine pipes.

What sorcery lies within valvetrain configuration and its impact on this ineffable melody?

Oh valiant seeker! Forsooth, it is in the confounding arrangements and intricate machinations governing our valves that lies a key to unlocking the mysteries surrounding timing and duration of exhaust gas release – an enchantment cast upon this ethereal auditory manifestation known as the exhaust note.

Can we unveil any clues hidden within external features to aid us in deciphering this otherworldly harmony?

Indeed! Certain arcane exterior motifs such as ornate designs adorning our perplexing exhaust systems or resplendent mufflers may whisper secrets concerning potential resonant melodies yet to be unfurled by these mystical tailpipes.

How may one uncover an engine’s elusive block casting number?

Seek ye diligently for oftentimes etched upon yonder engine blocks doth lie a cryptic inscription known as the block casting number. This sacred sigil shall serve thee well in identifying a specific engine model whilst unravelling its latent performance characteristics.

By what means can we discern one crankshaft from another amidst their veiled identities?

Set thine eyes upon each mysterious crankshaft bearing unique markings or numbers engraved upon their very beings or consulteth thou shalt with thy trusty guidebook bestowed unto engines themselves – referred to commonly as service manuals.

In what manner does connecting rod identification offer enlightenment into understanding this elusive cadence?

Lo! For identifying these confounding connecting rods shalt bestow upon thee the knowledge of a manifold’s length and design, thus granting thyself passage into the enigmatic realm of the exhaust note.

Why doth piston identification wield influence over this melodious incantation?

Verily I say unto thee, for it is within the intricate contours and ethereal essence emanating from our pistons that lies potential dominion over an engine’s performance. Thusly shall this power shape its resonant proclamation known as the exhaust note.

How might one discern which camshaft hath graced an engine with its presence?

Markings or numerals etched upon each revered camshaft or consultation with thy invaluable manuscript – referred to in common parlance as service manual – may lead thee down a path toward enlightenment concerning camshaft identity.

Doth the alluring design of our oil pans bewitchingly sway this elusive symphony we seek to unravel?

Whilst perchance not directly engaged in manipulating these mystical melodies, thou mustn’t dismiss their contribution entirely. Forsooth! The indomitable oil pan plays a vital role in preserving equilibrium within our engines, subtly influencing factors such as balance that may indirectly impact our enthralling exhale notes.

Might there exist any correlations between this mystifying melody and mesmerizing performance characteristics?

Aye! Behold before you certain illustrious exhaust notes that reveal themselv
es as harbingers of specific attributes such as high or low RPM prowess, overall mechanical efficiency, or even portents heralding modifications designed to augment one’s automotive exploits.

Leave A Reply

Your email address will not be published.